The Inner Body: Study of Human Skeletal, Endocrine & Reproductive Systems

10 May

Go to the following website:

http://www.innerbody.com/

Choose from one of the following systems:

1. Skeletal, Digestive, Muscular, Lymphatic, Endocrine, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Reproductive, Urinary

2. Choose eight components from your system, and briefly explain the nature/use of the body component.

[for example, “Femur” is the thigh bone, the longest bone in the body]

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4 Responses to “The Inner Body: Study of Human Skeletal, Endocrine & Reproductive Systems”

  1. Marie Bailey May 10, 2011 at 2:51 pm #

    Medial Plantar Nerve
    The medial plantar nerve, the larger of the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve (which stem from the sciatic nerve), accompanies the medial plantar artery

    Brain
    The brain is a jelly-like substance, which in adults weighs about three pounds.

    Tongue
    Anchored to the floor of the mouth and slung at the rear from muscles attached to a spiky outgrowth at the base of the skull, the tongue is a strong muscle that is covered by the lingual membrane,

    The Eye
    The eyes are the two organs of sight. They are located in the front upper part of the skull and consist of structures that focus an image onto the retina at the back of the eye which is a network of nerves that convert this image into electrical impulses to be recorded in a region of the brain.

    Hair Follicles
    Hair is present on all skin surfaces except the palms, soles, lips, nipples, and various parts of the external reproductive organs; however, it is not always well developed.

    Lymphatic Trunks
    Lymphatic trunks drain lymph from the larger areas of the body, and they are named for the areas that they Lymph Nodes
    Lymph nodes generally occur in groups along the larger lymphatic vessels.

    Penis
    The penis is the external sex organ of the male through which both urine and semen pass.

    Testicles
    The scrotum is a sac that hangs under the penis and holds the testes.

  2. michaelperez2011 May 10, 2011 at 5:12 pm #

    1.A tooth is a hard structure, set in the upper or lower jaw, that is used for chewing food. Teeth also give shape to the face and aid in the process of speaking clearly.

    2rips are flat, curved bones that form the framework of the chest and make up a cage to protect the heart, lungs and other upper organs.

    3Patella is the technical name for the kneecap, the triangular-shaped bone at the front of the knee joint

    4The tibia is the inner and thicker of the two long bones in the lower leg. It is also called the shin bone. Its upper end is expanded into “medial” and “lateral condyles,” which have concave surfaces and unite with the condyles of the femur.

    5The metatarsal is one of five long, cylindrical bones in the foot. The bones make up the central skeleton of the foot and are held in an arch formation by surrounding ligaments

    6The “radiate ligament” connects the front portion of the head of each rib with the side of the bodies of two vertebrae and the intervertebral fibrocartilage between them

    7.The “oblique cord,” also called the “oblique ligament,” is a small, flattened band extending distally and laterally from the lateral side of the tubercle of the ulna (lower arm bone) at the base of the coronoid process to the radius a little distal to the radial tuberosity

    8.The foot consists of an ankle, an instep, and five toes. The ankle is composed of seven “tarsal bones,” forming a group called the tarsus.

  3. Marlin Decembert May 10, 2011 at 5:14 pm #

    Skeletal System

    Scapula
    “Scapula” is the technical name for the shoulder blade. It is a flat, triangular bone that lies over the back of the upper ribs. The rear surface can be felt under the skin. It serves as an attachment for some of the muscles and tendons of the arm, neck, chest and back and aids in the movements of the arm and shoulder. It is well padded with muscle so that great force is required to fracture it. The back surface of each scapula is divided into unequal portions by a “spine.” This spine leads to a “head,” which bears two processes – the “acromion process” that forms the tip of the shoulder and a “coracoid process” that curves forward and down below the clavicle (collarbone). The acromion process joins a clavicle and provides attachments for muscles of the arm and chest muscles. The acromion is a bony prominence at the top of the shoulder blade. On the head of the scapula, between the processes mentioned above, is a depression called the “glenoid cavity.” It joins with the head of the upper arm bone (humerus).

    Spine, Vertebra and Disk
    The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It encloses and protects the spinal cord and supports the trunk of the body and the head. The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three bones called “vertebrae.” Each pair of vertebrae is connected by a joint which stabilizes the vertebral column and allows it to move. Between each pair of vertebrae is a disk-shaped pad of fibrous cartilage with a jelly-like core, which is called the “intervertebral” disk – or usually just the “disk”. These disks cushion the vertebrae during movement. The entire spine encloses and protects the spinal cord, which is a column of nerve tracts running from every area of the body to the brain. The vertebrae are bound together by two long, thick ligaments running the entire length of the spine and by smaller ligaments between each pair of vertebrae. The anterior longitudinal ligament consists of strong, dense fibers, located inside the bodies of the vertebrae. They span nearly the whole length of the spine, beginning with the second vertebrae (or “axis”), and extending to the sacrum. The ligament is thicker in the middle (or “thoracic” region). Some of the shorter fibers are separated by circular openings, which allow for the passage of blood vessels. Several groups of muscles are also attached to the vertebrae, and these control movements of the spine as well as to support it. Quasimodo, the central character of Victor Hugo’s novel, “The Hunchback of Notre Dame,” is probably the most famous of all real or fictional sufferers of “kyphosis,” an abnormal, backward curvature of the spine.

    Ligaments of The Sacrum
    The sacrum, at the base of the vertebral column, is wedged between the coxal bones of the pelvis and is united to them by fibrocartilage at the “sacroiliac joints.” The weight of the body is transmitted to the legs through the pelvic girdle at these joints. The fibrocartilage at the front of the sacrum, which joins it to the ilium is called the “anterior sacroiliac ligament”; at the back, it is called the “posterior sacroiliac ligament.” The coccyx, or tail bone, is attached by ligaments to the margins of the sacral hiatus (opening at the tip of the sacrum). These ligaments are called the “anterior” and “posterior sacrococcygeal ligaments.” The “sacrospinous ligament” is a thin, triangular sheet attached by its broad base to the lateral margins of the sacrum and coccyx, where its fibers are intermingled with those of the intrapelvic surface of the “sacrotuberous ligament,” and by its apex to the spine of the ischium. The sacrotuberous ligament is a broad, flat fan-shaped complex of fibers stretching from the lower back spine of the ilium, the 4th and 5th transverse tubercles and the caudal part of the lateral margin of the sacrum and coccyx to the inner margin of the tuberosity of the ischium. The “iliolumbar ligament” connects the lower lumbar vertebra process to the ilium (the largest portion of the coxal bone).

    Lower Leg And Ankle Ligaments
    The fibula is the long, slender bone beside the tibia. Its ends are slightly enlarged into an upper “head” and a lower “lateral malleolus.” The head meets the fibula just below the lateral condyle; but it does not enter into the knee joint and does not bear any body weight. The ligaments which join the fibula to the front of the fibula are called the “anterior tibiofibular ligaments,” and the “posterior tibiofibular ligaments” join them behind the knee. The lateral malleolus is joined to the ankle by the “anterior talofibular ligaments,” and the “posterior talofibular ligaments.” These ligaments form a prominence on the side of the ankle.

    Articular Capsules
    “Articular capsules” surround the joints between the cartilages of the true ribs and the sternum (breastbone). They are very thin and intimately blended with the radiate sternocostal ligaments, and are strengthened at the upper and lower parts of the articulations by a few fibers which connect the cartilages to the side of the sternum.

    Sternum
    The “sternum” is the medical name for the breastbone, a long, narrow, flat plate that forms the center of the front of the chest. It develops in three parts: an upper portion, or “manubrium,” a middle “body,” and a lower “xiphoid process” that projects down. The xiphoid process begins as a piece of cartilage. It slowly hardens into bone until, by middle life, it is usually fused to the body of the sternum. The sides of the manubrium and the body are notched where they unite with costal cartilages. It also joins the clavicles (shoulder blades) on its upper border. It usually remains a separate bone until middle age or later, when it fuses to the body of the sternum. The sternum is very strong and requires great force to fracture. The main danger in this type of injury is not the fracture itself, but the chance that the broken bone may be driven into the heart, which lies just behind it.

    Tarsal Bones
    The foot consists of an ankle, an instep, and five toes. The ankle is composed of seven “tarsal bones,” forming a group called the tarsus. These bones are arranged so that one of them, the “talus,” can move freely where it joins the tibia and fibula (lower leg bones). This is known as the “head of the talus.” The remaining tarsal bones are bound firmly together, forming a mass on which the talus rests. The other bones which compose the tarsus are the “calcaneus,” the largest of the ankle bones; the “talus;” the “navicular,” the “cuboid,” the “lateral cuneiform,” the “intermediate cuneiform,” and the “medial cuneiform.” The “calcaneus,” or heel bone, is located below the talus where it projects backward to form the base of the heel. It helps to support the weight of the body and provides an attachment for muscles that move the foot.

    Carpal Bones
    The skeleton of the wrist consists of eight small “carpal bones” that are firmly bound in two rows of four bones each. The resulting mass is the “carpus.” The eight bones are the “pisiform,” “triangular” or “triquetrum,” the “pisiform,” “lunate,” and “scaphoid” on the upper end of the wrist, where it connects with ligaments and the lower arm bones, and the “hamate,” “capitate,” “trapezoid,” and “trapezium” on the lower side of the hand by the “metacarpals,” or first joint of the fingers.

  4. ANDRE WILLIAMS May 11, 2011 at 5:45 pm #

    Vagina
    The vagina is a muscular passage which forms a part of the female sex organs and which connects the neck of the uterus (called the “cervix”) with the external genitals. The vagina, which is approximately two and one-half to four inches long, has muscular walls which are supplied with numerous blood vessels. These walls become erect when a woman is aroused as extra blood is pumped into these vessels. The vagina has three functions: as a receptacle for the penis during love-making; as a outlet for blood during menstruation; and as a passageway for the baby to pass through at birth. According to The Guiness Book of World Records, a Russian peasant woman who lived in the 18th Century holds the record for the most children born to one mother. She had sixty-nine children within forty years. She produced sixteen pairs of twins, seven sets of triplets, and four sets of quadruplets!

    Medial Plantar Nerve
    The medial plantar nerve, the larger of the two terminal branches of the tibial nerve (which stem from the sciatic nerve), accompanies the medial plantar artery

    Brain
    The brain is a jelly-like substance, which in adults weighs about three pounds.

    Lymphatic Trunks
    Lymphatic trunks drain lymph from the larger areas of the body, and they are named for the areas that they

    Penis
    The penis is the external sex organ of the male through which both urine and semen pass.

    Anus
    The anus is a canal at the end of the digestive tract through which feces is expelled. It is about five inches long and is an extension of the rectum. It is only open during the expulsion of feces, because it is usually kept closed by sphincter muscles, which can be relaxed at will.

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