BIOLOGY FINAL EXAM REVIEW

31 May

1 The diagrams give you some information about Cube A and Cube B.

 

 

 

Which of these statements is true?

 

A The substance in Cube A is the same as the substance in Cube B.
B The substance in Cube B is twice as dense as the substance in Cube A.
C The substance in Cube B is eight times as dense as the substance in Cube A.
D The substance in Cube A is eight times more massive than the substance in Cube B.

 

 

____        2   A chart is shown that contains information on mass and weight.

 

 

 

Which of the numbered items corresponds ONLY to mass?

 

F 2, 3, 4
G 1, 2, 4
H 1, 4, 5
J 1, 5, 6

 

 

____        3   The diagram shows a metal strip connected by wires to a battery and light bulb.

 

 

 

Which property of the metal is being tested with this setup?

 

A luster
B density
C elasticity
D conductivity

 

 

____        4   An engineer was given an assignment to build a model rocket. The main requirement was that he had to build it out of a metal that could release the energy that built up when reentering the atmosphere of Earth. What property should the engineer concentrate on the MOST when designing the rocket?

 

F density
G ductility
H specific heat
J boiling point

 

 

____        5   Many homes are built on the sides of hills. What can be done to prevent houses from collapsing or sliding down the hill after a heavy rainfall?

 

A increasing the slope of the hill
B adding plants and trees to the hill
C removing vegetation from the hill
D adding inorganic matter to the hill

 

 

____        6   Tropical rain forests are home to thick plant growth. Many such forests have poor soil that contains few nutrients. How is poor tropical rain forest soil able to support thick plant growth?

 

F Frequent rainfall replaces nutrients.
G Rain forest plants produce their own nutrients.
H Rain forest plants have adapted to need few nutrients.
J Decomposers quickly recycle nutrients from dead organisms.

 

 

____        7   Some forests develop after farmland is abandoned. Grasses may be overtaken by pine trees which are eventually replaced by hardwood trees. During this process, the soil also changes. Which change during this process is a form of chemical weathering?

 

A Water intake by trees reduces soil water content.
B Recycled organic matter from trees lowers soil pH.
C Rocks broken apart by tree roots add texture to the soil.
D Increased shade from the tree canopy lowers soil temperature.

 

 

____        8   As a result of rain forest deforestation, some organisms lose their habitats. Which is also an effect of rain forest deforestation?

 

F a decrease in the rate of soil erosion
G a decrease in the fertility of the topsoil
H an increase in the production of plants used for medicines
J an increase in the amount of oxygen produced in the atmosphere

 

 

____        9   Vetiver grass is planted by farmers along the borders of corn fields.

 

 

Which process does the vetiver grass MOST likely help farmers reduce?

 

A chemical weathering
B insect infestation
C freezing of crops
D water erosion

 

 

____      10   The body is made up of many systems that interact with one another. For example, the skeletal system and the muscular system work together to help the body move. Which system works with the respiratory system to distribute oxygen to the body?

 

F muscular system
G digestive system
H lymphatic system
J circulatory system

 

 

____      11   One function of the circulatory system is to carry cellular nutrients to the body. Which part of the circulatory system is responsible for exchanging nutrients and wastes?

 

A arteries
B capillaries
C heart
D veins

 

 

____      12   Dr. Mendez specializes in patients with osteoarthritis. Patients often complain of pain and swelling due to loss of cartilage. Which system is MOST affected by this disease?

 

F cardiovascular
G digestive
H immune
J musculoskeletal

 

 

____      13   Billy drew a picture of the digestive system on the board.

 

 

 

He told the class which organ removed most of the water from food. To which organ was he MOST likely referring?

 

A esophagus
B stomach
C small intestine
D large intestine

 

 

____      14   During digestion, strong acids are added to food to help break down the food chemically. Into which organ are MOST of these acids added?

 

F small intestine
G large intestine
H gallbladder
J stomach

 

 

____      15   Karen was reading a book about kidney system functions. Which statement did she MOST likely read that relates specifically to the kidney?

 

A It takes about 120 seconds for a small cut on the skin to clot.
B Every day about 5.5 liters of blood are circulated through an adult body.
C Every day about 1.25 liters of waste product are removed from the blood.
D It takes about 20 seconds for the blood to completely circulate through the body.

 

 

____      16   The heart is the major organ of the circulatory system. Which part of the body is responsible for delivering de-oxygenated blood to the heart?

 

F arteries
G capillaries
H valves
J veins

 

 

____      17   A common characteristic of all living things is that they

 

A breathe air.
B walk upright.
C are made of cells.
D use sunlight for growth.

 

 

____      18   The fossil record indicates that the first organisms to inhabit Earth were bacteria-like organisms. The information indicates that the first organisms

 

F were single-celled.
G were multicellular.
H had organ systems.
J had small appendages.

 

 

____      19   A student accidentally dropped her notes from science class and now the pages are out of order. The notes are on levels of structural organization of living things. When reorganizing the section of her notebook, from simplest to most complex, which is the correct order for the pages?

 

A organisms – systems – cells – tissues – organs
B cells – organs – systems – tissues – organisms
C organisms – tissues – organs – systems – cells
D cells – tissues – organs – systems – organisms

 

 

____      20   An organism, such as a nematode worm, may have only 1,000 cells. It should be classified as

 

F a virus.
G unicellular.
H a bacterium.
J multicellular.

 

 

____      21   Human muscle cells need nutrients and oxygen. When exercising, the human body is able to meet the needs of the muscle cells by increasing the

 

A digestion rate.
B excretion rate.
C ingestion rate.
D circulation rate.

 

 

____      22   If a nerve cell stopped functioning, the cell would

 

F start producing oxygen.
G begin dividing into more cells.
H become a different type of cell.
J stop sending signals to the brain.

 

 

____      23   A student was taking notes while the teacher was discussing cells. Which of these is a statement that the teacher MOST likely made?

 

A Most cells have the same shape.
B The shape of a cell depends upon its function.
C Cells that carry information are round and disk-shaped.
D Blood cells that move through the body are long and thread-like.

 

 

____      24   The flower petals of a hydrangea plant change color as the acidity of the soil changes. The color changes are directly related to which factor?

 

F gravitropism
G photosynthesis
H learned behavior
J environmental conditions

 

 

____      25   In guinea pigs, brown hair is dominant to white hair. The diagram shows chromosomes from a male guinea pig with brown hair and a female guinea pig with white hair.

 

 

 

A white-haired offspring resulting from the cross of these two guinea pigs MOST likely inherited genes from which two chromosomes?

 

A 1 and 2
B 1 and 3
C 2 and 4
D 3 and 4

 

 

____      26   Brown hair and brown eyes are dominant traits in humans. If both parents have brown hair and brown eyes, how is it possible that their children can have blond hair and blue eyes?

 

F Both parents are homozygous for brown eyes.
G Both parents are homozygous for blond hair.
H The children inherited one recessive gene from each parent.
J The children inherited one dominant gene from each parent.

 

 

____      27   A male fruit fly is homozygous dominant for gray body color (G) and is crossed with a female fruit fly that is homozygous recessive for ebony body color (g). What are the probable phenotypes of the offspring?

 

A 25% gray, 75% ebony
B 50% gray, 50% ebony
C 100% ebony
D 100% gray

 

 

____      28   A student is constructing a model of a single chromosome. The individual segments within the chromosome represent genes that control certain traits.

 

 

Based on the model, which term BEST describes gene pair #1.

 

F dominant
G heterozygous
H homozygous
J recessive

 

 

____      29   The gametes of human males and females have the same number of chromosomes. Which BEST describes what happens to the chromosomes when typical male and female gametes combine to produce offspring?

 

A The chromosomes change shape.
B The number of chromosomes doubles.
C The chromosomes become larger in size.
D The number of chromosomes reduces by half.

 

 

____      30   In the early 1800s, light-colored moths could be found resting on light-colored trees in England. At the beginning of the industrial revolution, the trees began to turn dark because of black soot from factories. By 1898, most of the moths found in England were dark in color. What may have enabled the dark-colored moths to survive and reproduce more than the light-colored moths?

 

F Dark-colored moths were covered by pollution and were no longer threatened by predators.
G Dark-colored moths were able to convert the soot to a chemical that was toxic to the predators.
H Dark-colored moths were faster than light-colored moths and therefore able to escape predators.
J Dark-colored moths were able to blend into the dark background and were not easily detected by predators.

 

 

____      31   Which trait of an animal MOST helps it survive in a very cold environment?

 

A thick fur
B long ears
C large eyes
D sharp claws

 

 

____      32   The Florida panther has been listed as an endangered species since 1967.

 

 

Which natural occurrence has MOST likely led to this species being unable to adapt and becoming endangered?

 

F an increase in global warming
G a decrease in genetic diversity
H a decrease in hurricane activity
J an increase in primary producers

 

 

____      33   A scientist has identified four birds with different types of beaks.

 

 

Which numbered bird beak has the BEST adaptation for tearing meat?

 

A 1
B 2
C 3
D 4

 

 

____      34   The four-eyed butterfly fish has a dark spot on each side of its tail.

 

 

Which is the MOST likely purpose of this adaptation?

 

F to attract prey
G to communicate
H to mark territories
J to confuse predators

 

 

____      35   Frogs have different adaptations that help them survive in particular areas. Under which circumstances would an adaptation be useful that allows tadpoles to go through a shortened period of metamorphosis?

 

A when tadpoles need to swim immediately
B when there is a lack of water in their environment
C when there is a decrease in the number of predators
D when tadpoles need to blend in with their surroundings

 

 

____      36   In an area where trees are growing taller, the giraffe population must adapt if it is to survive. Which statement BEST explains how the giraffes would be able to survive and reproduce.

 

F The genetic material for neck length within the offspring must mutate.
G The trait for longer legs would have to be a response to the change in the environment.
H The genetic material for smaller, shorter hind legs must exist within the giraffe population.
J The trait for longer necks must exist within the population and be inherited by the offspring.

 

 

____      37   The drawing represents a thick-billed Murre.

 

 

The thick-billed Murre lays its egg on a sea cliff ledge. In order for the eggs to survive and not fall off of the cliff, there has been an adaptation in the shape of the egg. Which egg shape is BEST suited for the cliff environment?

 

A
B
C
D

 

 

____      38   Biologists moved a predator from sea level to a higher elevation, where they noticed that the predator became tired more quickly. If this species of predator had to live at a higher altitude, which adaptation would be necessary for it to survive?

 

F increased digestion rate
G growth of additional teeth
H reduction of respiration rate
J production of more red blood cells

 

 

____      39   In any ecosystem, organisms interact with biotic and abiotic parts of the environment. As a result of all of the interactions, the matter within the system is

 

A produced when plants grow.
B recycled when organisms die.
C lost when animals and plants die.
D formed when new animals are born.

 

 

____      40   The cycling of materials such as carbon, water, and other nutrients is mainly dependent upon

soil-dwelling organisms.

 

 

Which pair of organisms shown are decomposers?

 

F Fungi and Bacteria
G Bacteria and Grass
H Fungi and Mice
J Mice and Grass

 

 

____      41   Materials such as carbon and nitrogen go through cycles. The cycling of nitrogen waste materials is MOSTLY dependent upon the role of which factor?

 

A atmosphere
B bacteria
C sunlight
D trees

 

 

____      42   The diagram shows components of a natural wetland habitat.

 

 

Which process is BEST demonstrated by this diagram?

 

F abiotic interactions
G nitrogen fixation
H energy flow
J life cycles

 

 

____      43   Jim found a chart that showed information on ecosystems. He noticed that the chart was subdivided into producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, and tertiary consumers.

 

 

Which statement BEST describes the energy relationship found within this ecosystem chart?

 

A Producers generate less energy than consumers in the ecosystem.
B Plants produce the most energy for feeding organisms in the ecosystem.
C Tertiary consumers such as snakes consume most of the energy available in the ecosystem.
D The insect population has less energy available to it than the frog population in the ecosystem.

 

 

____      44   In areas where kelp is abundant, sea urchins can be found. If sea otters live in the same ecosystem as the sea urchins, the equilibrium of the kelp forest can be maintained.

 

 

Based on the food chain, how is the kelp equilibrium MOST likely maintained?

 

F Sea otters keep the growth of kelp forests down by consuming large amounts of kelp.
G Sea otters help reduce the consumption of kelp by protecting the sea urchins.
H Sea otters consume sea urchins and help reduce the loss of kelp forests.
J Sea otters and sea urchins consume similar amounts of kelp.

 

 

____      45   Krill are small, shrimp-like crustaceans that are found in all oceans. A simple marine food web is shown.

 

 

Which statement describes a role of krill in this food web?

 

A Krill are included in the energy flow to blue whales.
B Krill are the only omnivores within the ecosystem.
C Krill obtain most of their energy from fish.
D Krill are key producers in this ecosystem.

 

 

____      46   Food webs are used to identify the feeding relationships between organisms.

 

 

Which statement can be logically concluded about the food web shown?

 

F Organism 1 is most likely a type of bacteria.
G Organism 2 is definitely an omnivore.
H Organism 5 is most likely a plant eater.
J Organism 8 is definitely a carnivore.

 

 

____      47   The removal of plant material, such as grass clippings, would MOST likely affect an ecosystem by

 

A decreasing the potential for soil erosion.
B increasing the food available for consumers.
C decreasing the nutrients available for new plants.
D increasing the accumulation of organic materials.

 

 

____      48   In 1989, an oil spill off the coast of Alaska led to a decline in the population of many organisms. Which other population was MOST likely affected by the drop in population of the fish, otters, and seals?

 

F deer
G eagles
H frogs
J snakes

 

 

____      49   Forest fires occur in many areas due to drought conditions. If the drought conditions continue for a long period of time, which might cause the repopulation of trees to be threatened?

 

A a decrease in the thickness of soil
B a decrease in the amount of erosion
C an increase in the bacterium population
D an increase in the production of oxygen

 

 

____      50   Grasslands are found in temperate regions where rainfall rates are between 25 and 75 centimeters (cm) per year. If the rainfall rates over the next 100 years increased to 200 cm per year, similar to that of tropical rainfall rates, how would the region MOST likely be affected?

 

F Less solar radiation would enter the region.
G Larger plants and trees would take over the region.
H The region would become a habitat for large and small sea organisms.
J The primary producers in the region would have less ability to recycle carbon.

 

 

____      51   In a grassland ecosystem, organisms of the same species eat the same food. When there is a lack of rain, which is MOST likely increased?

 

A carrying capacity
B population density
C competition for space
D competition for resources

 

 

____      52   The picture shows the effect that wind can have on water movement. As the wind blows water away from shore, cold water moves up towards the surface bringing nutrients to the shallow waters.

 

 

Which statement BEST identifies the relationship taking place in this example?

 

F Abiotic factors can influence energy flow in an ecosystem.
G Biotic interactions control the movement of nutrients in the ocean.
H Abiotic parts of an environment make up parts of marine food webs.
J Biotic interactions are causing an increase in food sources for marine life.

 

 

____      53   During the Siberian summer, reindeer graze on young roots, fungi, grass, and other vegetation. In the cold winter months, they migrate south and rely on available, but less nutritious, food such as lichen. Increased snowfall during the entire winter in southern areas would result in reindeer having to

 

A return to their summer feeding area.
B hibernate until the snows have stopped.
C hunt for organisms such as small rodents.
D move to other areas to compete for resources.

 

 

____      54   When studying the health of an ecosystem, ecologists consider many factors. Which factor is LEAST likely considered by ecologists when evaluating the impact of human activities on an ecosystem?

 

F air quality
G plant diversity
H solar radiation
J thermal pollution

 

 

____      55   Forests have been cut and burned so that the land can be used to raise crops. Which consequence does this activity have on the atmosphere of Earth?

 

A It reduces the amount of carbon dioxide production.
B It reduces the production of oxygen.
C It decreases the greenhouse effect.
D It decreases pollutants in the air.

 

 

____      56   Mrs. Weaver’s class read an article about how humans unintentionally damage ecosystems. The class learned that while fishing for tuna, fishermen have also killed thousands of dolphins accidentally caught in nets. Based on several graphs, the students made a chart that included data over a 21-year period.

 

 

Which is the BEST explanation for the drastic decrease in the number of dolphins killed after 1975?

 

F Tuna fishing was banned in 1975.
G Dolphins stopped swimming with tuna.
H Economic and political pressures were brought against tuna fishermen.
J Dolphin deaths and tuna catches were not considered important after 1975.

 

 

____      57   In the past 200 years, the Continental United States has lost a large percentage of its wetland habitat.

 

 

What MOST likely caused the loss of the wetlands during this time period?

 

A decrease in global temperatures
B increase in human population
C increase in hurricane activity
D decrease in sea level

 

 

____      58   Some scientists have estimated that in the 1700s, the U.S. bald eagle population was around 500,000. By 1960, the population was around 1,000. It was officially classified as endangered in 1967.

 

 

Based on the information in the chart, which MOST likely caused the near extinction of bald eagles?

 

F increase in predators
G decrease in rainfall rates
H decrease in food sources
J increase in human interaction

 

 

____      59   Scientists at a local university have been studying the impact that people have on Earth. One of the areas being studied is how the burning of fossil fuels affects the environment. Which effect of fossil fuel burning have the scientists MOST likely evaluated?

 

A the production of nitrogen-fixing bacteria
B the mechanical weathering of roads
C the formation of acid rain
D the increase in runoff

 

 

____      60   In large industrial cities, the emissions from fossil fuels cause the atmosphere to be toxic. Which process allows the atmosphere to become toxic?

 

F increased acidity in soil
G increased use of fertilizers on crops
H increased build up of greenhouse gases
J increased rainfall rates near power plants

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

23 May

After watching the video clip, use the following steps to conduct further research on one of the following STD’s

Once you’ve found further information about your STD, attempt to answer the following questions:

1. How is the STD contracted [how do you get it]?

2. What specific type of intercourse can lead to contraction of the STD?

3. List at least five symptoms [signs something may be wrong] of the STD.

4. Explain how the STD is treated. [is there a cure? is there any medication to take?]

5. List at least three ways to PREVENT contracting the STD.

GONORRHEA

CHLAMYDIA

SYPHILIS

HERPES

AIDS

HEPATITIS

GENITAL WARTS

CHANCROID

PUBIC LICE (crabs) & SCABIES

TRICHOMONIASIS

How do Human Babies Compare with Other Animals?

19 May

Directions:

Choose from one of the following animals: horse, whale, lizard, snake, rhinoceros, elephant, lion

Try to find the following information about your animal:

1. How do they reproduce?

2. Does the animal carry the fetus or are the eggs dispersed before hatching?

3. What stages does the baby animal go through?

4. How does a human baby compare to the animal you’re researching?

5. Name one similarity between a human baby and your animal.

6. Name one difference between a human baby and your animal.

7. What would be the result if humans had the development qualities of your animal? Do you think it would make humans stronger or weaker? Why?

Researching One Health Concern for Young Adults

17 May

From the topics discussed with the previous activity, choose one to conduct further research.

In the Comments area below, include the following information:

Name of topic: [example: melanoma]

1. 1 paragraph summary [IN YOUR OWN WORDS]

2. Three concerns regarding topic: [example: How does one get cancer?]

3. Three ways to prevent health issues related to your topic: [ex. cleaning piercing area daily can prevent infection]

4. Three facts most of your peers didn’t know about your topic: [it is possible to acquire HIV from an infected needle]

5. Concluding paragraph [3-5 sentences] with your opinions about the topic: [ex. tattoos can be safe if you go to a licensed tattoo artist that uses sterilized materials]

Things to Know About Your Health

16 May

The next 5 days, we will be discussing issues related to health, reproduction, changes in your body, and related topics.

After opening the link in a new window http://kidshealth.org/teen/your_body/#cat20438

, complete two-column notes for the following topics.

Choose one topic for each of the following categories:

Body Beautiful

Taking Care of Your Body

Skin Stuff

Health Basics

Getting Medical Care

Body Art

Body Basics Library

With each of the topics, collect information about each, writing information on the right side of the page.

The Inner Body: Study of Human Skeletal, Endocrine & Reproductive Systems

10 May

Go to the following website:

http://www.innerbody.com/

Choose from one of the following systems:

1. Skeletal, Digestive, Muscular, Lymphatic, Endocrine, Nervous, Cardiovascular, Reproductive, Urinary

2. Choose eight components from your system, and briefly explain the nature/use of the body component.

[for example, “Femur” is the thigh bone, the longest bone in the body]

Mapping Your Biome

4 May

The world map below can be used as a guide for drawing your World Map Biome Diagram.

Draw and shade/color only the regions that contain your biome regions.